As a rule, it is quite difficult to get children to take pills for the treatment of certain diseases, and therefore most drug manufacturers have in their assortment drugs that are more affordable for use at this age - aerosols, drops, tinctures, solutions and syrups (depending on from the place to be influenced).
Therefore, the attending physician, in most cases, prefers liquid medicines when treating a child.
Also, instead of taking pills for the treatment of children, injections may be recommended, however, their implementation in very young children can be problematic (in relation to intravenous injections) and, moreover, it is very difficult (if there is a need for long-term therapy of a substitution nature).
However, there are situations when it is not possible to choose a drug in an alternative form to tablets. In such cases, you can sometimes try to crush the drug and, diluting it in a teaspoon with plain water, give it to the baby. However, this can often reduce the effectiveness of the drug, both due to its sedimentation on the esophagus, which has a low resorptive capacity (compared to the small intestine and stomach), and due to the fact that a number of tablets (coated and gastro-resistant), when interacting with gastric juice lose their effect due to the destruction of the main active ingredient.
The same applies to capsules, in connection with which their destruction with the direct intake of the powder contained inside can quite often nullify the effect of the treatment.
It is much easier to teach how to take pills to treat children over the age of 3.5 years, due to the presence of meaningful behavior in the child. As a rule, preference in training is given to outsiders (workers of medical institutions), but this can also be carried out by relatives. As a rule, the child should be taught in advance, before the development of the disease, provided that the child does not have lesions of the oral mucosa and esophagus. It is better to start training with small, smooth tablets without an unpleasant odor and taste (as a rule, these are vitamins). It is forbidden to give more than 2 tablets in one session, as there is a possibility of developing allergic reactions and other complications.
To be successful in teaching a child over 3.5 years old to take pills on their own, the following conditions are recommended:
make an effort to increase the child's interest in swallowing tablets and capsules without chewing them; show by example how to swallow a pill; to communicate with the child, use simple and understandable commands, orienting the child, who must take and swallow the pill himself, and then drink it with water to teach the baby the correct position of the pill on the tongue (not on the tip and not too deeply, as this can cause the development of emetic reflex); after successful swallowing of the pill by the child, reward the baby with something tasty or some kind of toy..
However, there is also a negative point after teaching a child to take pills on their own. So, many children, not realizing the possible consequences, take a large number of pills, which in most cases leads to poisoning. For example, in 2002, the American Poison Control Association recorded more than 2.4 million drug poisonings, with more than half of the cases in children under 6. Children from 1.5 to 3 years old were at the greatest risk of poisoning. It was noted that the lower the body weight, the higher the risk of death, since there is a high risk of developing a lethal concentration of the drug in the blood plasma.
To prevent the development of this unpleasant situation, one should not only make medications less accessible, but also warn the child not to take pills without the permission of adults.
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The most common drugs that cause poisoning in children include:
calcium channel blockers (side effects in children are a critical drop in blood pressure and heart rhythm disturbances); preparations containing camphor (side effects in children are the rapid development of seizures, delirium, coma, and death); analgesics (side effect in children is drowsiness, turning into lethargic sleep); aspirin and other salicylates (side effects in children include nausea, vomiting, agitation, seizures, lethargy, coma, and death); antidepressants (side effects in children include seizures, freezing and cardiac arrhythmias); eye drops and nasal sprays (side effects in children include lethargic sleep, low blood pressure, and coma); sulfonylurea derivatives used to treat diabetes mellitus (dangerously low plasma glucose, coma, seizures).
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There are situations when a child needs treatment, but adults do not want to waste time visiting a specialist and give the child the same medications that they themselves once took for similar symptoms. This is a big problem, since in children, due to the peculiarities of the functioning of the body, there is a high probability of developing side effects not only due to the discrepancy in the dosage of the tablets, but also due to the insufficient development of a number of enzyme systems.
Most adults believe that there is no need to visit a specialist, since there is a large amount of information on the Internet on the treatment of a particular disease. However, few people understand that a qualified doctor comprehensively evaluates a specific clinical situation and looks for ways to most effectively solve the problem using the most recent international protocols. In this regard, a fairly large number of drugs are sold only by prescription (this is especially widespread in the United States of America, where the purchase of most drugs is a problem).